Salyut Space Station

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    The World's First Space Station to be placed into orbit was the Russian Salyut 1. The Soviets launched it from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on April 19, 1971 using a three-stage Proton launch vehicle. It completed 362 orbits before reentering the atmosphere mostly over the Pacific Ocean.
    The station was 12 meters long by 4.1 meters wide. It had 3 main compartments. Two were for dining, recreation, control stations, food & water storage, hygiene, exercise and experimens. The third area was an airlock and docking station.
    The main purpose of Salyut 1 was to study the effects of long duration spaceflight on the human body and to take photographs of the Earth from space. It carried a telescope for studying star's, a greenhouse to analyze plant growth, a camera and film plates to study cosmic rays and a telescope that could detect gamma rays coming from the sun. The three pressurized areas of the Salyut had a collective habitable volume of 100 cubic meters. Two of these could be entered by the crew.

Here is an interior picture of the Salyut 6

     The primary area contained eight big chairs, several control panels and approximately 20 portholes. The other area held the control and communication equipment, power supply, life support system and other auxiliary equipment. There was also a fourth unpressurized compartment that contained engine and control equipment.

Here is the main control panel on the Salyut

    The first crew to visit Salyut 1 launched from Baikonur on April 22, 1971. Salyut 7 was the last of the Salyut space stations and the precursor to the Mir Space Station. It was launched on April 19, 1982. It stayed in orbit for approximately nine years, hosted nine cosmonaut crews and spent more than 800 days inhabited.

    This is the official Patch that was worn by cosmonauts going to the Salyut Space Station.

    The Salyut 7 had many improvements from the previous stations. Salyut 7 had two docking ports which were located on opposite ends of the station -- one for Progress resupply vehicles and another wider one for Heavy Cosmos modules.
Unlike Salyut 6, Cosmonauts now had electric stoves, a refrigerator and constant hot water. The seats at the command consoles were redesigned to more closely resemble bicycle seats. Two portholes let in ultraviolet light to help kill germs and prevent infections. An X-ray detection system replaced the BST-1M telescope used on Salyut 6.

The station re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on Feb. 7, 1991. It reportedly scattered debris over parts of Argentina and Chile.

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